The Paris Agreement was inaugurated at signing on 22 April 2016 (Earth Day) at a ceremony in New York.  Following the ratification of the agreement by several European Union states in October 2016, there have been enough countries that have ratified the agreement to produce enough greenhouse gases worldwide for it to enter into force.  The agreement entered into force on November 4, 2016.  Under the Paris Agreement, each country must define, plan and report regularly on the contribution it makes to the fight against global warming.  No mechanism obliges a country to set a specific emissions target before a given date, but each target should go beyond the targets set previously. The United States formally withdrew from the deal the day after the 2020 presidential election, although President-elect Joe Biden said America would join the deal after his inauguration.  Ultimately, all parties recognized the need to “prevent, minimize and address loss and damage,” but in particular any mention of indemnification or liability is excluded.  The Convention also adopts the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage, an institution that will attempt to answer questions relating to the classification, management and sharing of responsibilities in the event of loss.  The amount of NDCs set by each country sets the objectives of that country.
However, the “contributions” themselves are not binding under international law, for lack of specificity, normative character or mandatory language necessary for the creation of binding norms.  In addition, there will be no mechanism to compel a country to set a target in its NPP by a set date, and no implementation if a target set out in a NSP is not met.   There will be only one “Name and Shame” system or, as János Pásztor, UN Under-Secretary-General for Climate Change, cbs News (USA) stated, a “Name and Encourage” plan.  Given that the agreement has no consequences if countries do not comply with their obligations, such a consensus is fragile. A stream of nations withdrawing from the agreement could trigger the withdrawal of other governments and lead to a total collapse of the agreement.  During the 2011 UN Climate Change Conference, the Durban Platform (and the Special Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action) was created with the aim of negotiating a legal instrument for action on climate change from 2020. The resulting agreement is expected to be adopted in 2015.  On August 4, 2017, the Trump administration communicated to the United Nations an official notification that the United States .