After U.S. President Donald Trump took office in January 2017, he tried to replace NAFTA with a new agreement and began negotiations with Canada and Mexico. In September 2018, the United States, Mexico and Canada reached an agreement to replace NAFTA with the U.S.-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA), and the three countries had ratified it until March 2020. Nafta remained in effect until the implementation of the USMCA.  In April 2020, Canada and Mexico informed the United States that they were ready to implement the agreement.  The USMCA came into force on July 1, 2020 and replaced NAFTA. The OBJECTIVE of NAFTA was to remove barriers to trade and investment between the United States, Canada and Mexico. The implementation of NAFTA on January 1, 1994 resulted in the immediate removal of tariffs on more than half of Mexican exports to the United States and more than one-third of U.S. exports to Mexico. Within 10 years of the implementation of the agreement, all U.S.-Mexico tariffs should be eliminated, with the exception of some U.S. agricultural exports to Mexico, which are expected to expire within 15 years.
 Most of the trade between the United States and Canada was already duty-free. NAFTA also aimed to remove non-tariff barriers and protect intellectual property rights on marketed products. Democratic candidate Bernie Sanders, who opposed the Trans-Pacific Partnership trade deal, called it “a continuation of other disastrous trade agreements such as NAFTA, CAFTA and normal, long-term trade relations with China.” He believes that free trade agreements have led to the loss of American jobs and lower U.S. wages. Sanders said America needs to rebuild its production base with U.S. factories for well-paying jobs for the U.S. workforce, instead of relocating to China and elsewhere.    In an October 2017 notice in The Globe and Mail in Toronto, the question was raised as to whether the United States wanted to renegotiate the agreement or planned to divest, no matter what, and noted that the newly appointed U.S. Ambassador, Kelly Knight Craft, is married to the owner of Alliance Resource Partners, a major U.S. coal operation.